hafta Brazzers studyolarinda calisip emek sarfeden koca memeli Phoenix Marie izin porno indir gununde de kocasina vermeye karar veriyor Kocasinin da Brazzers icin calistigini unutmus porno video sayilir Kendi yatak odasinda oyle profesyonel bir seks yapiyor ki cekici hatun yine redtube harikalar yaratmis seksi guzel hatun sert erkeklerden ve koca penislerden cok hoslaniyor porno video guzel zenci hatun bu seferde genc bir erkek ile geldigi evde muhabbetin dibine porno vuruyor Zenci kari seksiligi ile adami kendinden ediyor resmen adam kari karsisinda daha fazla dayanamiyor
Log in

Login to your account

Username
Password *
Remember Me
HomeArticlesDigitizationNet Neutrality: Finally Unlocking the Net
Thursday, 16 August 2018 12:14

Net Neutrality: Finally Unlocking the Net

email this page

On 11 July 2018, the Telecom Commission (TC) approved the net neutrality recommendations submitted by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) in November 2017, thus marking the culmination of a movement for free and accessible internet that began in 2 015.

The announcement is historic as the USA still struggles to retain net neutrality protections; its net neutrality rules died in June 2018, though ISPs have been reclassified as a Title I service, shifting them under the FTC's jurisdiction. In other words, providers are assuring consumers that they aren't throttling our access. Despite Obama administration’s strong advocacy for net neutrality rules in the US in 2015, US telecom regulator Ajit Pai later had announced rolling back of those rules, which treated internet service providers like public utilities.

Back in India, people of India cheered the decision, as ISPs now cannot perform actions involving blocking, degrading, slowing down or granting preferential speeds or treatment to any content.

The internet in India is finally free and equally accessible.

The TC has kept ‘Critical IoT services' and 'specialised services' exempt from the new rules. These include remote surgery or autonomous vehicles, which the authorities compared to laws allowing ambulances to ignore traffic rules.

 

Journey: 

Just after the telecom regulator TRAI had started calling for public comment on potential changes to internet regulations back in 2015, the social media giant Facebook introduced its Internet.org (later Free Basics) service in India, which the country banned in 2016 for providing zero-rating content that may have  presented an advantage over local companies. TRAI’s recommendation on prohibition of zero rating content has now also been approved by the TC, which is so vital to preserve net neutrality.

Then, the leading telecom operator Airtel had also released a plan which would charge extra for internet calls and a platform called Airtel Zero, which would allow free usage of select apps. This is popularly known as zero-rating. Airtel was later forced to cancel both these plans.

These plans had awakened the iusers and they started campaigning for net neutrality.

In Feb. 2015, TRAI had restricted telcos from charging differential rates for data services in its Prohibition of Discriminatory Tariffs for Data Services Regulations, 2016, thus effectively blocking such attempts by Facebook and Airtel. To monitor violations, TRAI has recommended the establishment of a collaborative mechanism in the form of a multi-stakeholder body which would be responsible for developing technical standards for monitoring and enforcement of the principles.

In 2015, the TRAI had published a paper on net neutrality, a 118-page-long document and it came with heavy words and concepts that many did not understand. Many experts and analysts had then thought that even the TRAI looked sympathetic to the telecom operators, as the paper said “strict network neutrality and no regulation - are inherently flawed. Banning all discrimination is over-inclusive”.

 The net users lobbied heavily through social  media, and created web portals like savetheinternet.in and netneutrality.in where public were asked to sign petitions, and in less than a week, 8 lakh emails were sent to India’s telecom regulator, demanding a free and fair internet. Also, many companies expressed their support for a free and fair internet, and opined that discrimination could crumple local Indian companies and startups just entering the market.

 

Timeline of Net Neutrality: 

Recommendations: 

Since the recommendations have now been approved, let’s have a look at the TRAI’s major recommendations on net neutrality. TRAI, on 28 Nov. 2017, released its recommendations, and its Chairman RS Sharma then had said, “Nobody owns the internet. And, therefore, it is everybody’s property, and therefore, it should be open and accessible to everybody.”

TRAI said in TRAI's consultation paper on differential pricing for data servicesits recommendations, “The licensing terms should be amplified to provide explicit restrictions on any sort of discrimination in Internet access based on the content being accessed, the protocols being used or the user equipment being deployed.”

 

The key highlights of the recommendations are: 

Anti Discrimination: The recommendations say that discriminatory treatment of content is prohibited. Internet access services should be governed by a principle that restricts any form of discrimination or interference in the treatment of content, including practices like blocking, degrading, slowing down or granting preferential speeds or treatment to any content.

CDN: The regulator, in its recommendations, has kept content delivery networks (CDN) out of the regulation. CDNs enable telecom deliver content within their network without going through the public internet in order to create a content ecosystem to drive user traction. 

“We believe the CDN (content delivery network) exemption is likely to benefit integrated operators. We expect RJIO and Airtel to sustain leading positions in this space. They could leverage CDN exemption and offer platform content at lower prices to drive traction within their subscriber base,” brokerage house Edelweiss said in a report.

Internet of Things (IoT):  TRAI, though as a class of services, has not excluded IoT from the scope of the restriction on non-discriminatory treatment. However, critical IoT services, which may be identified by department of telecom as specialised services which could include telemedicine, B2B services will be automatically excluded.

Appointment of regulator: The regulator wants a watchdog along the lines of BARC India for enforcing Net Neutrality and proposed reasonable measures of traffic management, in line with TRAI’s guidelines.

Exe mptions:  Global treaties, court orders, government order on blocking certain sites are exempt from these guidelines, as per TRAI recmmendations.

Recommendations on Transparency and disclosures: TRAI has also proposed to supplement its existing disclosure and transparency requirements by framing additional regulations in this regard. 

Recommendations on monitoring and enforcement: TRAI recommends that for monitoring and enforcement, DoT may establish a multi-stakeholder body with framework for collaborative mechanism among the stakeholders. The multi-stakeholder body, not for profit, led by industry may comprise members representing different categories of TSPs and ISPs, large and small content providers, representatives from research and academia, civil society organisations and consumer representatives. Now as the recommendations have been accepted, TRAI will frame the terms, conditions and governance structure etc. 

Clear message to service providers: The regulator also gave a clear message to service providers, as one of the recommendations reads, “The service providers should be restricted from entering into any arrangement, agreement or contract, by whatever name called, with any person, natural or legal, that has the effect of discriminatory treatment based on content, sender or receiver, protocols or user equipment.”

The Authority  recommended  that  the  terms  of  various  license agreements governing  the  provision  of  Internet  services  in  India (UL,  VNO  license,  UASL  and  CMTS) be  amended  in  order  to incorporate  the  principles  of  non-discriminatory  treatment  of content  by  Internet  Access  Services  along  with  the  appropriate exclusions   and   exceptions.   This   will   also   help   in   building uniformity in the terms governing the provision of Internet services   by   different   categories   of   licensees. 

Some of the other features: TRAI asked DoT to define the specialized services. The regulator allowed internet access service providers to take reasonable measures for traffic management, provided they're proportionate, transient and transparent. It recommended telcos to declare their traffic management practices as and when deployed, and their impact on users. 

TRAI also allowed carriers or Internet access providers to use some traffic management practices (TMPs) on their networks to ensure quality of services, preserve security of networks, providing emergency services and for implementing a court order or government direction, as long as they are transparent and their impact on users is declared.

TRAI added: “The authority may, from time to time, frame appropriate regulations to specify further details regarding the scope and assessment of reasonable traffic management practices. 

 

Industry Reactions: 

There were mixed reactions on these recommendations. The Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI), which represents many telecom operators, said that the recommendations were principally in agreement with the industry submissions regarding the narrow issue of Net neutrality. COAI was then disappointed that the authority did not adopt the industry recommendation to have a wider approach. “A committee to review and decide on network management violations is unnecessarily bureaucratic, and is not in keeping with light touch regulation or the ease of doing business.”

Telcos were upset that while they have to adhere to net neutrality guidelines, these would not apply to over-the-top (OTT) players such as WhatsApp. They also opposed the proposal to include Internet of Things (IoT), which is expected to be a big revenue generator in the years ahead under 5G technology, within the ambit of net neutrality 

The Internet Association of India (IAMAI) called the recommendations “progressive and in line with the debates” in the industry and user groups. It said, “The debate of Net neutrality was about the freedom and choice of access for end users. Internet in India, unlike possibly in the U.S. or China, is going to be ‘free and open’ upholding the democratic principles of the country.

Nikhil Pahwa, cofounder, Internet Freedom Foundation, said: “Essentially, this differential access ruling affirms the principles of non-discrimination that were established by TRAI in the differential pricing ruling last February. This is a victory for Internet users and ensures they can create operate freely without fear of discrimination from TSPs (telecom service providers), who have been barred from blocking them or slowing them down, except under exceptional circumstances.” 

“Any deviations and violations of the rules of net neutrality -- which come into effect almost immediately -- will be met with stiff penalties," telecom secretary Aruna Sundarajan said.

The net neutrality norms are world’s strongest, and it adds beauty to our democratic values and set examples before the world. Finally 500 million users in India will see the New Dawn.

email this page

Share this post

Submit to DeliciousSubmit to DiggSubmit to FacebookSubmit to Google PlusSubmit to StumbleuponSubmit to TechnoratiSubmit to TwitterSubmit to LinkedIn
Happy Diwali
Cable Quest Annual Issue 2018
One 2 BHK Flat Available
Wanted - English Journalist, Excel Operator, Web Marketing
Subscribe to Cable Quest

Calendar

November 2018
S M T W T F S
28 29 30 31 1 2 3
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17
18 19 20 21 22 23 24
25 26 27 28 29 30 1

Latest News

Magazine Archives Year 2014-2015

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - June 2015

    Jun 2015

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - May 2015

    May 2015

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - April 2015

    Apr 2015

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - March 2015

    Mar 2015

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - February 2015

    Feb 2015

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - January 2015

    Jan 2015

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - December 2014

    Dec 2014

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - November 2014

    Nov 2014

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - October 2014

    Oct 2014

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - September 2014

    Sep 2014

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - August 2014

    Aug 2014

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - July 2014

    Jul 2014

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - June 2014

    Jun 2014

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - May 2014

    May 2014

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - April 2014

    Apr 2014

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - March 2014

    Mar 2014

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - February 2014

    Feb 2014

  • Cable Quest Magazine Archive - January 2014

    Jan 2014

Do you have a Complaint

World of Spiritual & Divine Thoughts | Shri Guru Nanak Dev Ji

hızlı öfkeli 8 izle canlı maç izle hd film izle film izlecanlı maç izle
X

Right Click

No right click