A country’s regulatory philosophy is built on its own unique history and traditions. In India so far we had the experience of state monopoly in the infrastructure development. After 50 years of independence, we are fast moving towards privatisation. However, we have to tread our path very carefully so as not to go off the track in a haste. On the other hand we have to counter the political lethargy in the country. There is a tendency to slow down the matter if there are no personal gains to be made.
Apprehending the genuineness of print media barons extending their empire in the field of broadcasting too, the Bill restricts cross media holdings. That is to say, those having a say in print media are denied the provisions of having the same say in broadcast media.
In response to the Supreme directive in the Union of into versus the Cricket Association of Bengal (CAB) case in February 1995 in which airwaves were declared public property and were to be regulated by an independent authority with statutory status; which ultimately prevents monopolies and protects viewers to access a range of services programmes and views, enough emphasis has been given to codify the BAI in the Broadcast To pioneer the cause of listener and viewers against the authority of the broadcasters-be of public or private; the BAI is being constituted.
An assessment of the potential of new markets and business opportunities arising from Digital Technology by Colin J. Knowles of the Australian Broadcasting Authority
A Gateway to Pay Televisión
Addressability is the control of the cable subscriber base, such that every user is uniquely identifiable. The diagram shows how levels of control exist within an addressable cable TV system in a hierarchical structure.
The ‘appease-all’ effort of the finance minister P Chidambaram might have been fully successful, as the Budget-1997-98 has been welcomed by almost every industry segment. Nevertheless, there are some sections in the industry which have been lurking in the dark for want of more enlightenment. Cable TV operating industry is one such example. The announcement of the budget that telecom industry will be considered as a part of the infrastructure has left Cable TV operators guessing into deep waters whether domestic ca©ble industry forms a subsidiary portion of the telecom industry.
Having embraced the mantra of liberalization six years ago, India is, today, integrating with the new borderless global economy. The economic liberalization has been greatly aided and accelerated by the media liberalization. In fact, the two are totally complimentary.
In recent history, no other business visitor to India has attracted more attention than the whistle-stop tour of the world’s richest man -Bill Gates. Our country’s corporate titans hung onto every word of his, drinking it in like gospel truths, with emotion bordering mass hysteria.
Breakneck technological changes are threatening to make the already small global village into global ‘mohalla’. New discoveries are being made even before yesterday’s ‘latest’ discovery is yet to be implemented. Such is the case with the new-fangled DTH, which could be occluded by reportedly superior Ka-band.
With an increasing number of channels available to Indian audience, the job of Channels managers to build, retain and increase its share of audience is becoming increasingly tougher. The proliferation of Channels -both audience-specific (Children Cartoon) and subject-specific (Sports, Movies) has meant the fragmentation of the already fragmented audience, this makes the task of how-to-get audience, particularly difficult one for television institutions. Because it is a mass audience, the audience tastes are so diffused and so general that you have got to be guessing. You can work off precedents about what’s worked on television before. You can work off whatever smattering sociological information you gleaned from whatever sources. You can let your personal judgments enter into it to some extent - But you never really know. There is no wav to know in advance whether the audience will tune in and stay tuned. The only option available to Channel Managers is to devise risk-reducing strategies. One such strategy is to customise.
This article will discuss the recent technology advances in the areas of compression, disk technologies and associated RAID technologies, editing systems and the impact on the post-production and broadcast markets. It will also dwell on the shifts being seen in the video industry from analog to digital, from analog tape to digital tape, from tape to disk and digital tape formats. Recent advances in the areas of compression, with special emphasis on the brand new MPEG2 professional 4:2:2 profile, and its impact to the news, broadcast, archival and the post-production markets will be discussed. As more and more computer systems are being used in the video industry, the challenge to transport this video information faster (than real time) from one system to another becomes apparent. The various network topologies and technologies such as ATM, FDDI,Fibre Channel, SDH etc., will be positioned.
Addressing a delegation of the Cable Operators Federation of India led by Mrs. Roop Sharma on Feb. 13, 1997, the Union 1 & B Minister Mr. C.M. Ibrahim declared that “ The Broadcast Bill will play an important role in regulating the industry by minimising if not eliminating confusion and chaos caused by unregulated growth”. He however agreed with COFI’s demand that “Cable Operators should be heard and consulted prior to the formulation of the proposed legislation.” The meeting was also attended by Mr. N.P. Nawani I & B Secretary and Mr. K.S. Sarma, Director General, Doordarshan.
DTH services were announced last year with much fanfare but are a non-starter till date due to the confused state of mind of our government. Earlier Doordarshan wanted to take the advantage of this direct to home technology but gave upto after the command was shifted to a new incumbent. All of a sudden it dawned on the authorities that DTH was only for a few and did not fulfill the social objectives of the National Broadcaster. No regulations existed in India that could harm DTH. Taking advantage of the situation and to have the benefit of being the first with their experience in heralding satellite revolution in India, Star TV announced its DTH plans. Hardly had their full-page advertisement appeared in the newspapers that the alarm bells started ringing in the government quarters announcing an apprehension of a similar chaos originating in the skies as it happened on the ground in the case of Cable TV.
First came the channel boom. The skies became overcrowded as more and more transnational broadcasters directed their operations towards this region. Initially all the channels were free-to-air but with the mushrooming of channels and the comparatively low growth of advertising on which the channels were solely dependent forced the broadcasters to go ‘pay’. Making Indian viewers pay for viewing programmes did not prove to be an easy task. As a result pay channels are still struggling to gain a foothold in the country although they have been there since two years.
The boundaries between the entertainment media and communication enterprises are fast breaking down and future shifts in frequency reuse are already on the anvil. The task today is one of the how to move away from “one-to-many” broadcasting to accommodate narrow casting and interactivity for individual households. In this process the core of convergence of communications technologies is ease and extent of reach and access, range and reliability of value added services and of course speed and reduced tariffs of communication flows. Ultimately however, the relevance is in the contents and not in the means of delivery. On these aspects depend both scope and significance of convergence.
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